Category Archives: Severity Tools


This is the examination of the microcirculation using a microscope at a magnification in the order of 50 X. It has the potential to detect the cutaneous manifestations of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) before overt skin changes are seen clinically. The technique has been described as a microscopic C of CEAP in the assessment of… Read More »

Extending clinical CEAP

The clinical part of the CEAP (Clinical, Etiological, Anatomical, Pathological) classification is the most popular classification system for venous disorders. Its purpose originally in 1994 was to standardise reporting by defining the study groups in clinical trials and manuscripts submitted to journals. However, the C of CEAP is not a perfect system and there have… Read More »


This is short for corona phlebectatica paraplantaris and was first recognised by van der Molen in 1960. Unrelenting venous pressure over time will cause susceptible cutaneous venules to dilate. This is most likely to occur around the ankle which is the region of the highest hydrostatic pressure. This is below a failing calf muscle pump… Read More »


This is an abbreviation for the Venous Clinical Severity Score. It is a physician’s reporting instrument designed to record the severity of venous disorder. It is a questionnaire comprised of 10 clinical attributes. Each attribute generates 4 questions which represent 4 increasing levels of severity ranging from 0 to 3. Thus the total score ranges from 0 to a maximum… Read More »

Clinical CEAP

CEAP is a classification system for chronic venous disorder and an abbreviation for Clinical, Etiologic, Anatomic and Pathophysiologic. It was created by the American Venous Forum in 1994 with a first revision performed in 2004. The C part of CEAP, the clinical part, should be used in all studies to define the patient population under investigation. It is intended to… Read More »