Category Archives: Definitions

Venous hypertension

This can be defined as high vein pressure in the leg for an extended time period. The pressure in leg veins ranges from -5 mmHg to over 300 mmHg. The later can occur in leg veins at the moment of impact after jumping off a wall. Normally there are anti-gravitational mechanisms, like the calf-muscle pump… Read More »

Varicose veins

There are tortuous and dilated veins which can be seen or felt beneath the skin of the leg. Their cause is not known. It is true to say they are associated with pregnancy, standing occupations and that the condition runs in families. The commonest cause is said to be an inherited weakness in the veins themselves.… Read More »


This is usually defined using duplex ultrasound which can measure flow in individual veins. Refluxive veins are defined as reverse flow in a superficial or saphenous vein which lasts more than half a second. Refluxive deep veins are defined when this reverse flow lasts more than 1 second. The normal direction of flow in a vein is… Read More »

Chronic venous insufficiency

This could be defined as an impairment of the venous drainage of the leg at a local or regional level. It is parallel to arterial insufficiency which is impaired supply to tissues and organs. These are both haemodynamic terms. Whilst it is relatively easy to quantify arterial insufficiency, venous drainage is much harder to measure. Causes include… Read More »