Category Archives: Pelvic Venous Reflux

Pelvic congestion syndrome II

Pelvic congestion syndrome is a collection of symptoms and signs which occur when the pelvic veins fail in their drainage function. The cause is usually through reflux but venous obstruction may be responsible in some cases. The increase in pelvic venous volume and pressure can be transmitted into the legs through pelvic escape points resulting… Read More »

Pelvic congestion syndrome I

Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) can be defined as a prolonged pressurisation of the venous networks of the pelvis. The condition occurs predominantly in women, especially after childbirth. However, men can be affected because there is debate as to whether PCS is a significant contributor to haemorrhoidal disease. The haemodynamic pathophysiology includes obstruction or reflux of… Read More »

Trans-vaginal ultrasound

Trans-vaginal ultrasound (TVU) is a way of assessing the pelvic veins. It should be performed in women when a reflux source is suspected arising from above the sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ). Approximately a sixth of women have saphenous vein reflux fed from above. Source points of pelvic venous reflux (PVR) or incompetence (PVI) include the internal… Read More »