Author Archives: moderator

Pathogenesis of the venous ulcer

Venous ulcers are an infrequent complication of prolonged venous hypertension and are a considerable burden to health resources. Approximately 10% are painless and do not interfere with the patient’s quality of life. Treating the superficial venous reflux often results in a cure but re-ulceration is possible in the absence of interference from deep axial reflux… Read More »

Long term glue

Cyanoacrylate glue is used extensively now for the closure of refluxing saphenous trunks, occasional deep tributaries and some perforating veins. The advantage over endothermal methods of closure is that tumescence is not needed. However, tumescence will be required for the actual varicose veins if they are removed using phlebectomies in a local anaesthetic setting. It… Read More »


This is the technique of extirpating a saphenous vein using a metal probe which has been cooled with liquid nitrogen. Although this is still above a cryogenic temperature (-180 or -150 degrees C), it fulfils its purpose as a saphenous vein extractor. There are many advantages in using cold to ablate the saphenous vein rather… Read More »

Pelvic congestion syndrome II

Pelvic congestion syndrome is a collection of symptoms and signs which occur when the pelvic veins fail in their drainage function. The cause is usually through reflux but venous obstruction may be responsible in some cases. The increase in pelvic venous volume and pressure can be transmitted into the legs through pelvic escape points resulting… Read More »

Kinesiotape in foam sclerotherapy

One of the barriers preventing the universal acceptance of foam sclerotherapy for superficial tributaries is the real side-effect of post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and pain at the site of the sclero-thrombosis. Although a sclerosis is the optimal process to achieve a good result, adequate collapse of the target vein is rarely achieved using eccentric compression… Read More »

Contrast guided foam sclerotherapy

Ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS) is an established technique which uses ultrasound to map the direction of foam and gauge the amount required for venous closure. Contrast guided foam sclerotherapy (CGFS) is used for similar indications. However, the images provide greater detail on the behaviour of the injected foam. The amount of foam and the… Read More »