Category Archives: Haemodynamics


Some patients with a high body mass index have skin changes in the gaiter area which include eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and occasionally venous ulceration. Furthermore, weight loss often results in a reversal of these changes. Therefore, the assumption of an underlying venous insufficiency is valid. These include venous reflux, calf muscle pump impairment secondary to less… Read More »


This is an abbreviation for Ambulatory Venous Pressure and its measurement is considered the gold standard investigation in the assessment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). This relies on the hypothesis that increased venous pressures over time causes the discomfort and skin changes associated with CVI. The pressure is caused by the failure of the anti-gravitational mechanisms of the leg. This… Read More »