Category Archives: Deep Vein Thrombosis

D-dimer and CAT

D-dimer levels are firmly established as a method of screening patients for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Their sensitivity of over 95% is such that normal levels in most cases can exclude a deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. However, their specificity is only about 50%. D-dimer levels rise in the elderly, during pregnancy, with immobility and… Read More »

Calf vein thrombosis

The deep veins in the calf include the posterior tibial, anterior tibial, peroneal, muscular and gastrocnemius veins. If they thrombose this is termed a calf vein thrombosis (cDVT) which can be detected by duplex ultrasound as non-compressibility with the absence of flow during a provocation manoeuvre. However, the tibial and peroneal veins are often paired… Read More »

Virchow’s triad

This triad is a hypothesis originating from Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) consisting of stasis, hypercoagulability and endothelial injury. They are the three categories of factors thought to cause a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Stasis may occur after prolonged immobility, stroke, general anaesthesia, hospitalisation or air/car travel. Hypercoagulability may occur with cancer, late pregnancy, childbirth, severe trauma, burns or inherited… Read More »